Search This Blog

Saturday, January 31, 2015

Hall County Deputy Sheriff Charged with Accepting Bribes

FBI Atlanta Division Press Release:


Hall County Deputy Sheriff Charged with Accepting Bribes

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 30, 2015
  • Northern District of Georgia(404) 581-6000
GAINESVILLE, GA—David M. Treadwell, a Hall County Deputy Sheriff, has been arraigned on federal charges of accepting bribes and conspiring to possess with intent to distribute marijuana. Treadwell was indicted by a federal grand jury on January 28, 2015.
“When a police officer becomes the exception and betrays his badge to protect criminals and promote crime, he undermines the dedication and sacrifices of his fellow officers that allow our citizens to trust and respect law enforcement,” said Acting United States Attorney John A. Horn. “This case unfortunately follows too closely on the heels of other instances of police corruption in this district, but we are committed to aggressively investigating and prosecuting these cases to ensure that people have faith and confidence in our police.”
J. Britt Johnson, Special Agent in Charge, FBI Atlanta Field Office, stated: “Allegations of public corruption at all levels is a priority concern to us at the FBI, but allegations involving a law enforcement officer offer additional challenges and concerns. The FBI, upon receiving such allegations in this case, worked aggressively with its law enforcement partners to quickly investigate those allegations and present that investigation to federal prosecutors.”
“When you have a seasoned deputy sheriff who makes the conscious choice to violate his oath of office and seek illegal financial gain it must be dealt with expeditiously,” said Hall County Sheriff Gerald Couch. “I will not tolerate this kind of criminal action and I am thankful for the duty-bound officers who brought these heinous activities to the forefront.”
According to Acting United States Attorney Horn, the charges, and other information presented in court: Treadwell was employed as a deputy sheriff with the Hall County Sheriff’s Office. On five occasions in late 2014, Treadwell accepted $200 or $300 from a person he believed was a drug dealer. In exchange for the money Treadwell agreed to alert the drug dealer if Treadwell learned that the drug dealer was under investigation in Hall County.
David M. Treadwell, 33, of Gainesville, Ga., was arraigned before United States Magistrate Judge J. Clay Fuller. Members of the public are reminded that the indictment only contains charges. The defendant is presumed innocent of the charges and it will be the government’s burden to prove the defendant’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt at trial.
This case is being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation with assistance from the North Georgia Major Offenders Task Force that includes members of the Hall County Sheriff’s Office which assisted in the investigation.
Assistant United States Attorney William L. McKinnon, Jr. is prosecuting the case.
For further information please contact the U.S. Attorney’s Public Affairs Office at USAGAN.Presse-mails@usdoj.gov or (404) 581-6016. The Internet address for the home page for the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Georgia Gainesville Division ishttp://www.justice.gov/usao/gan/.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Crownpoint Man Sentenced for Federal Child Sexual Abuse Conviction

FBI Albuquerque Division Press Release:


Crownpoint Man Sentenced for Federal Child Sexual Abuse Conviction

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 30, 2015
  • District of New Mexico(505) 346-7274
ALBUQUERQUE—Jimmie Edward Augustine, Sr., 70, an enrolled member of the Navajo Nation who resides in Crownpoint, N.M., was sentenced today for his child sexual abuse conviction. Augustine will serve a 24-month prison sentence followed by five years of supervised release. He will be required to register as a sex offender after completing his prison sentence.
Augustine was arrested on Nov. 6, 2013, on a two-count indictment charging him with aggravated sexual abuse and abusive sexual contact with a child who had not attained the age of 12 years. According to the indictment, Augustine committed the offenses between May 2011 and Sept. 2011, in a location within the Navajo Indian Reservation.
In March 2014, Augustine pled guilty to Count 2 of the indictment charging him with abusive sexual contact. Augustine admitted engaging in a sexual act with a child who was under 12 years of age by intentionally touching the child’s genitals and buttocks.
This case was investigated by the Gallup office of the FBI and the Gallup Police Department with assistance from the New Mexico Children, Youth and Families Department and is being prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorney Niki Tapia-Brito. The case was brought as part of Project Safe Childhood, a nationwide initiative launched in May 2006 by the Department of Justice (DOJ) to combat the growing epidemic of child sexual exploitation and abuse. Led by United States Attorneys’ Offices and DOJ’s Criminal Division’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, Project Safe Childhood marshals federal, state and local resources to better locate, apprehend and prosecute individuals who exploit children via the Internet, as well as to identify and rescue victims. For more information about Project Safe Childhood, please visithttp://www.justice.gov/psc/.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Professional Cattle Thief Pleads Not Guilty

FBI Albany Division Press Release:


Professional Cattle Thief Pleads Not Guilty

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 30, 2015
  • District of Vermont(802) 951-6725
The Office of the United States Attorney for the District of Vermont announced that Jason Amidon, 27, of Coudersport, Pennsylvania, was arraigned yesterday in United States District Court in Burlington, and pleaded not guilty to charges that he knowingly offered as payment for 53 Vermont cows a counterfeit certified check in the amount of $100,000, and unlawfully transported those cows from Lyndonville, Vermont, to auction in Greencastle, Pennsylvania. U.S. Magistrate Judge John M. Conroy ordered the defendant detained pending trial, which has not been scheduled.
On January 15, 2015, a federal grand jury in Burlington returned a two count indictment accusing Amidon of uttering a counterfeit check and unlawfully transporting 53 stolen cows across state lines.
According to the complaint filed earlier in the case, on January 1, 2015, Amidon and his father traveled to a Lyndonville farm and presented a counterfeit check to the Vermont farmer, as payment for 53 Belted Galloway cattle, a heritage pedigree breed of cattle. Amidon represented the $100,000 to be an initial payment, with the $20,000 balance to be paid to the farmer at a later date. Amidon’s father then drove the cows to auction in Pennsylvania.
According to documents filed in court yesterday, this is Amidon’s fourth cattle fraud case. Two previous Pennsylvania state cases that resulted in misdemeanor convictions concerned similar cattle frauds, and at the time of the instant offense, the defendant was facing state charges in Pennsylvania that involved the fraudulent promise of cattle for $135,000, which Amidon unlawfully pocketed.
The United States Attorney emphasizes that the charges in the indictment are merely accusations and that the defendant is presumed innocent unless and until he is proven guilty. If convicted on the charges in the instant indictment, Amidon faces up to ten years of imprisonment and a fine of up to $250,000. The actual sentence would be determined with reference to federal sentencing guidelines.
This case is being investigated by the Vermont State Police in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Pennsylvania State Police were also instrumental in the investigation and arrest in Coudersport, Pennsylvania.
Amidon is represented by Assistant Federal Public Defender Elizabeth Quinn. The prosecutor is Assistant U.S. Attorney Abigail Averbach.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Portman Recognized for Work on Drug Abuse - YouTube

Portman thanked the Ohio Association of Behavioral Health Authorities for recognizing him on his work to combat drug abuse.



Video (2:16)



Portman Recognized for Work on Drug Abuse - YouTube

Sessions: Congress Has Zero Obligation To Give Obama Money To Undermine Laws Of The United States - YouTube

Video (2:05)



Sessions: Congress Has Zero Obligation To Give Obama Money To Undermine Laws Of The United States - YouTube

Senator Hatch sits down with Mark Halperin to talk bipartisanship, sports, and Washington in 2015. - YouTube

Video (7:23)



Senator Hatch sits down with Mark Halperin to talk bipartisanship, sports, and Washington in 2015. - YouTube

Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey on FOX News' Fox & Friends - YouTube

Video (3:17)



Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey on FOX News' Fox & Friends - YouTube

Sen. Moran Discusses FairTax Legislation on U.S. Senate Floor - YouTube

On Wednesday, January 28, 2015, U.S. Senator Jerry Moran discussed his FairTax legislation on the U.S. Senate Floor.



Video (3:47)



Sen. Moran Discusses FairTax Legislation on U.S. Senate Floor - YouTube

Democrats beating GOP in divide and conquer game | TheHill

Democrats may be flailing in the minority on Capitol Hill, but newly empowered Republicans have fared far worse in the opening act of the 114th Congress.
While nothing new, GOP divisions have been especially pronounced this January.


Democrats beating GOP in divide and conquer game | TheHill

Romney exit jolts 2016 GOP field | TheHill

Mitt Romney shook up the 2016 GOP field on Friday with his announcement that he won’t be seeking the presidency for a third time. 
In a call with supporters early on Friday, the 2012 nominee said it’s time to “give other leaders in the party the opportunity to become our next nominee.”


Romney exit jolts 2016 GOP field | TheHill

Jeb Bush was a pot-smoking bully, say former classmates | TheHill

Former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (R) said in the 1990s that he smoked marijuana while he was in high school, but a new profile of the likely 2016 presidential candidate paints a more detailed picture of his use of the drug.
A classmate, Peter Tibbetts, told The Boston Globe that he smoked marijuana for the first time with Bush in the woods near their dorm at the prestigious Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass.


Jeb Bush was a pot-smoking bully, say former classmates | TheHill

Rand Paul slams Bush 'hypocrisy' on pot | TheHill

DALLAS — Sen. Rand Paul (R-Ky.) accused Jeb Bush of hypocrisy after The Boston Globe reported the former Florida governor was a heavy marijuana smoker while at an elite prep school.
Bush opposed a Florida medical marijuana ballot initiative last year even though he partook liberally of the herb while in high school.


Rand Paul slams Bush 'hypocrisy' on pot | TheHill

First lady defends 'American Sniper' | TheHill

Michelle Obama is defending “American Sniper,” saying the film “touches on many of the emotions and experiences” of military veterans.
“I had a chance to see ‘American Sniper’ this week on that long flight we took,” the first lady, who just returned from a trip to India and Saudi Arabia, said Friday.


First lady defends 'American Sniper' | TheHill

Liban Haji Mohamed Placed on the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists List

FBI Washington Field Office Press Release:


Liban Haji Mohamed Placed on the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists List
Known Supporter of al Shabaab and al Qaeda Departed U.S. in 2012

FBI WashingtonJanuary 29, 2015
  • Public Information Office(202) 278-3519
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced today the addition of Liban Haji Mohamed to the Most Wanted Terrorists list. Liban Haji Mohamed has been charged by complaint with providing material support and resources to a designated terrorist organization. The FBI is offering a reward of up to $50,000 for information leading to the arrest and conviction of Mohamed.
Liban Haji Mohamed is wanted in connection with providing material support to Harakat Shabaab Al-Mujahidin, also known as al Shabaab, and al Qaeda. Al Shabaab is a Somali-based insurgent and terrorist group whose senior leadership is believed to have trained and fought in Afghanistan. Al Shabaab has claimed responsibility for many bombings in Somalia and Uganda and is known to have recruited westerners. The U.S. Department of State designated al Qaeda as a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) in 1999, and al Shabaab as an FTO in 2008. Mohamed was a close associate of convicted terrorist Zachary Chesser, who was sentenced in February 2011, to 25 years in prison for attempted material support to al Shabaab.
Liban Haji Mohamed is a Somali-born naturalized U.S. citizen. Traveling with his U.S. passport, Mohamed is believed to have left the U.S. on or about July 5, 2012, with the intent to join al Shabaab in East Africa. On July 16, 2012, Interpol, the world’s largest international police organization, issued a blue notice for Mohamed in order to collect additional information about his identity, location, and activities in relation to crime. On August 15, 2014, Interpol issued a red notice to seek Mohamed as a wanted fugitive.
Born January 4, 1986, Liban Haji Mohamed speaks English, Somali, and Arabic. He is a black male, 6’0” tall (182.88 cm), 194 pounds (87 kg), with black hair and brown eyes. Mohamed could be using aliases of Abu Ayrow, Shirwa or Shirwac, Qatiluhum, and Qatil. Before departing the U.S., Mohamed worked as a taxicab driver and lived in the Northern Virginia suburbs of the Washington, D.C. area.
A federal warrant for Mohamed’s arrest was unsealed by the U.S. Attorney’s Office in the Eastern District of Virginia on January 29, 2015.
With the addition of Liban Haji Mohamed, there are currently 31 individuals on the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists list. Individuals on the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists list have been charged in the U.S. for their alleged involvement in various terrorist attacks or planned attacks around the world against U.S. interests or persons.
Individuals with information concerning Liban Haji Mohamed are asked to contact the FBI or the nearest American Embassy or Consulate. Tips can be submitted anonymously at tips.fbi.gov.

Seventeen-Year-Old Man Charged in Kansas City Kidnapping

FBI St. Louis Division Press Release:


Seventeen-Year-Old Man Charged in Kansas City Kidnapping

FBI St. LouisJanuary 29, 2015
  • Rebecca Wu(314) 589-2671
This press release was originally issued by the Jackson County Prosecutor’s Office, which can be reached at (816) 881-3555. 
Robert Caldwell’s alleged 17-year-old accomplice in the abduction and assault of a south Kansas City man on Jan. 22, 2014 has been charged in Jackson County with multiple felonies under Missouri law, Jackson County Prosecutor Jean Peters Baker announced today.
De’zahn J. Carey, dob: 8/18/1997, faces Robbery 1st Degree, Kidnapping, Assault 1st Degree and two counts of Armed Criminal Action.*
According to court records, Robert Caldwell was arrested on a federal warrant in Lincoln County, Kentucky, on Jan. 27. In an interview with Kansas City police and the FBI, Caldwell admitted to the robbery and kidnapping of the victim as well as other crimes. He identified the second male involved as “Da Da.” And Caldwell identified from a photo De’zahn James Carey as the second male involved in the crimes. A relative of Caldwell identified Carey as her cousin and confirmed that the two men shown in surveillance photos from ATMs and gas stations, persons using the victim’s credit card, were Caldwell and Carey. The victim, a 67-year-old man, was abducted sometime the morning of Jan. 22, 2014 from his residence in the 12200 block of Prospect Avenue in south Kansas City. The victim later told police he was threatened at gunpoint by two men, handing over his wallet, money and keys to his van.
Prosecutors have requested a bond of $500,000.
*Charges are only accusations and the defendant is presumed innocent unless anduntil the defendant is either found guilty or has pleaded.

Snoqualmie Washington Man Indicted in Extensive Benefits Fraud Scheme

FBI Seattle Division Press Release:


Snoqualmie Washington Man Indicted in Extensive Benefits Fraud Scheme
Defendant Allegedly Filed for Multiple Benefits with Conflicting Claims for Assistance

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • Western District of Washington(206) 553-7970
A federal grand jury has indicted a former federal employee for multiple counts of wire fraud and mail fraud, and making false statements in connection with an extensive scheme to fraudulently obtain federal and state benefits, announced Acting United States Attorney Annette L. Hayes. DARRYL LEE WRIGHT, 46, of Snoqualmie, Washington, will appear today in U.S. District Court in Tacoma at 2:30 p.m. His sister KAREN M. BEVENS, 43, of Duvall, Washington, who is charged in one of the counts, will appear for arraignment next week. The indictment was returned following an investigation that revealed that WRIGHT was making false and conflicting claims to various agencies in an effort to fraudulently obtain benefits. The charged criminal conduct allegedly occurred from 2005 to the present, during which WRIGHT is alleged to have fraudulently received more than $250,000 in benefits.
According to the indictment, WRIGHT made a variety of false claims in his scheme to defraud the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Social Security Administration, and the Washington State Department of Employment Security. False statements also were made to the Department of Commerce, the Office of Personnel Management, the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services and the U.S. Army.
The nine count indictment charges schemes to commit both wire fraud and mail fraud, making false statements to the Army, and making a false statement to the U.S. Department of Commerce.
The charges contained in the indictment are only allegations. A person is presumed innocent unless and until he or she is proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt in a court of law.
The case was investigated by multiple agencies led by the Social Security Office of Inspector General (SSA-OIG). The Office of Inspector General of these agencies were involved in the investigation: Veterans Affairs (VA-OIG), Department of Commerce (DOC-OIG), Office of Personnel Management (OPM-OIG), and General Services Administration (GSA-OIG). Also contributing to the investigation is the FBI, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Division, the Washington National Guard, the Washington Employment Security Department and the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services.
The case is being prosecuted by Assistant United States Attorney David Reese Jennings.
Press contact for the U.S. Attorney’s Office is Public Affairs Officer Emily Langlie at (206) 553-4110 or Emily.Langlie@usdoj.gov.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Pediatric Nurse Pleads Guilty to Sexual Exploitation of Children in His Care

FBI San Diego Division Press Release:


Pediatric Nurse Pleads Guilty to Sexual Exploitation of Children in His Care

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • Southern District of California(619) 557-5610
SAN DIEGO, CA—Michael William Lutts, a 50-year-old foster parent and pediatric nurse, pleaded guilty in federal court today to sexually exploiting a two-month-old premature boy and an 11-month-old girl who had been placed in his care last summer.
According to his plea agreement, Lutts admitted to 15 instances in July and August in which he photographed and videotaped the babies in sexually explicit situations at both his home and workplace. In one image, the defendant photographed his own exposed genitals beside the infant, who was still wearing his hospital bracelet. In some of the images and videos, the baby is crying as Lutts sexually abuses him. Lutts also admitted e-mailing sexually explicit images of children to others.
Lutts pleaded guilty to two counts of sexual exploitation of a minor and one count of distribution of child pornography before U.S. Magistrate Judge Jill L. Burkhardt. He faces up to 80 years in prison, and has agreed to forfeit his College area home where most of the crimes occurred.
“This is a deeply disturbing case,” said U.S. Attorney Laura Duffy. “We will do everything in our power to protect our precious, defenseless children from sexual abuse and exploitation, especially at the hands of caregivers who are supposed to keep them safe.”
FBI Special Agent in Charge Eric S. Birnbaum commented, “Though the FBI conducts many types of criminal investigations, it is particularly disturbing when the victims are sexually exploited children or infants. When this type of sexual exploitation takes place, the FBI and our law enforcement partners will aggressively pursue those who would exploit and abuse children, and bring them to justice.”
Sentencing is scheduled for April 20, 2015 before U.S. District Judge John Houston.
Criminal Case No. 14CR2542-JAH
Defendant
Michael William Lutts
Age: 50
San Diego
Summary of Charges
Counts 1, 17: Sexual Exploitation of a Minor, in violation of 18 U.S.C. §2251(a) Maximum Penalties: Thirty years in prison, mandatory minimum 15 years per count.
Counts 16: Distribution of Child Pornography, in violation of 18 U.S.C. §2252(a)(2) Maximum Penalties: Twenty years in prison, mandatory minimum five years.
Investigating Agencies
Federal Bureau of Investigation
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Lapwai Man Sentenced for Making False Statements to a Federal Official and Failing to Appear

FBI Salt Lake City Division Press Release:


Lapwai Man Sentenced for Making False Statements to a Federal Official and Failing to Appear

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • District of Idaho(208) 334-1211
COEUR D’ALENE, ID—Delbert Daniel George, 31, of Lapwai, Idaho, was sentenced today to 57 months in prison followed by three years of supervised release for making false statements to a federal official and failing to appear in court, U.S. Attorney Wendy J. Olson announced. Visiting U.S. District Judge Fremming Nielsen ordered George to spend 36 months in prison for lying to federal agents and a consecutive 21 months for George’s failure to appear for sentencing on that charge.
“The consecutive sentences demonstrate that failing to appear is a serious matter,” said Olson. “Respect for the law, and for the courts, are the cornerstone of a civilized society. My office will continue to prosecute those who obstruct justice or fail to abide by the court’s directives.”
The case was investigated by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Nez Perce Tribal Police.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Former Federal Bureau of Prisons Employee Pleads Guilty to Sex Charge

FBI Pittsburgh Division Press Release:


Former Federal Bureau of Prisons Employee Pleads Guilty to Sex Charge

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • Southern District of West Virginia(304) 345-2200
BECKLEY, WV—United States Attorney Booth Goodwin announced today that Richard Canterbury, 50, of Lewisburg, West Virginia, pleaded guilty to abusive sexual contact involving a ward.
Canterbury, a former Federal Bureau of Prisons employee, admitted that while he was working as a supervisor in the garage at the Federal Prison Camp in Alderson, West Virginia, he intentionally touched the breasts of a female inmate on one occasion in early 2014.
Canterbury faces up to two years in prison, and a fine of $250,000. He is scheduled to be sentenced on May 13, 2015.
United States District Judge Irene C. Berger presided over the plea hearing.
This case is being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Assistant United States Attorney John File is in charge of the prosecution.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Habitual Domestic Violence Offender Sentenced to Life Imprisonment for Murder

FBI Phoenix Division Press Release:


Habitual Domestic Violence Offender Sentenced to Life Imprisonment for Murder

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • District of Arizona(602) 514-7500
PHOENIX—On Jan. 28, 2015, Willard John, 36, of Cibecue, Arizona, was sentenced by U.S. Senior District Judge James A. Teilborg to life imprisonment. On July 11, 2014, John was found guilty by a jury of second-degree murder.
The facts of this investigation revealed that John, a member of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, brutally stabbed his wife to death on March 19, 2012, on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, using a pair of household scissors. The evidence at trial showed that John had a lengthy history of abusing his wife.
The investigation was handled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with substantial assistance from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The prosecution was handled by Dimitra H. Sampson.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.

Allentown Man Sentenced to 10 Years for Drug Trafficking Scheme

FBI Philadelphia Division Press Release:


Allentown Man Sentenced to 10 Years for Drug Trafficking Scheme

U.S. Attorney’s OfficeJanuary 29, 2015
  • Eastern District of Pennsylvania(215) 861-8200
ALLENTOWN—Melvin Aviles, 34, of Allentown, PA, was sentenced today to 10 years in prison for running a cocaine trafficking operation. Aviles pleaded guilty on April 8, 2014 to conspiracy to distribute 500 grams or more of cocaine, four counts of distributing and aiding and abetting the distribution of cocaine, one count of distributing and aiding and abetting the distribution of cocaine within 1,000 feet of a public school, five counts of distribution of cocaine, and one count of attempted possession with intent to distribute.
Between October 2012 and April 2013, Aviles operated a cocaine trafficking business, obtaining cocaine from sources in Puerto Rico and other locations for resale in the Allentown area. Aviles arranged to have parcels shipped via the United States Postal Service from Puerto Rico to various addresses in Allentown. Once the cocaine was delivered, Aviles would transport the cocaine to his Allentown residence, weigh it, and repackage it for further distribution in and around the Allentown area. Some of the cocaine sales were conducted within 1,000 feet of schools.
In addition to the prison term, U.S. District Court Judge James Knoll Gardner ordered 12 years of supervised release and a $1,100 special assessment.
“The successful result of this prosecution is due, in large part, to the outstanding collaboration of local, state, and federal law enforcement. The tireless efforts and diligent work of the officers and agents investigating this case, made it possible to get this drug trafficker off the streets of Allentown.”
“This case represents just the most recent success derived from the close working relationship that exists between the Pennsylvania State Police and our federal and local law enforcement partners,” said Pennsylvania State Police Captain Brian Tobin. “We will continue to put forth our combined resources in order to protect the citizens of this Commonwealth and ensure those who willing choose to commit crimes are brought to justice.”
The case was investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Pennsylvania State Police, and the Allentown Police Department with assistance by the Office of the Lehigh County District Attorney. It was prosecuted by Assistant United States Attorney Sherri A. Stephan.
This content has been reproduced from its original source.